©Marialuisa Sabato

Coastal and Offshore Science and Engineering

An International open-access Journal

Coastal and Offshore Science and Engineering (COSE)

Coastal and Offshore Science and Engineering is an internationally peer-reviewed open access journal of coastal and offshore science and engineering published every 6 months online by STUDIUM. After acceptance, manuscripts are published Free of Charge, i.e. no payment is due for publication.

Readers of the Journal include engineers, geologists, ecologists, geographers, oceanographers, scholars and specialists who have interest in coastal development, ecology, management and protection. The Journal provides new insights on coastal, port and offshore processes, function, design, performance, management, monitoring and restoration from an integrated, multi-/inter- disciplinary, multi-trophic and sustainable perspective. Coastal and Offshore Science and Engineering welcomes research and field case papers based on a wide range of topics by means of field/laboratory experimental campaigns and remote sensing technology as well as mathematical and numerical modelling.

The purpose is to encourage the development and application of holistic initiatives and novel concepts, methods, models and technologies; to elucidate the impact of multiple stressors (climate change, invasive species); to enhance knowledge about the engineering, geology and ecology and integrity of the coastal and offshore systems.


Hans F. Burcharth (Aalborg University) - ADVISORY EDITOR

Prof. Hans F. Burcharth
Ocean and Coastal Engineering Research Group, Aalborg University, Denmark

Professor Burcharth has more than 50 years of professional experience in research, teaching and consulting activities related to hydraulics, port and coastal engineering. At an early age he became a professor in Hydraulics and Maritime Civil Engineering in Aalborg where he was one of the leading forces behind the establishment of the Danish Engineering Academy – now Aalborg University – and designed and built the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory in Aalborg. This laboratory has since 1972 performed a vast number of model test studies of ports and coastal and offshore structures for public and private enterprises. Until 2002 professor Burcharth was head of the Department of Civil Engineering.

Professor Burcharth’s main research field is the development of new methods for design and construction of port, coastal and offshore structures – especially breakwaters – including wave structure interactions as well as geotechnical and material aspects.

Professor Burcharth’s consulting activities for public authorities, port authorities and consulting engineers and contractors are world wide, covering more than 30 countries, including a number of mega projects.

Professor Burcharth is member of the Danish Academy of Technical Science, was President of the Danish Society of Hydraulic Engineering for 13 years and has for a decade been member of the Danish Technical Research Council, as chairman of the Civil Engineering Committee. Besides this he has served in several governmental committees for research related to general civil engineering, offshore oil/gas activities, wave power and 3rd World research aid.

He is member of the PIANC Maritime Commission, MarCom and has during the years been member and chairman of many PIANC Working Groups related to breakwater and quay subjects. In the period 1993 to 2015 he was Editor-in-Chief of the Elsevier Science Journal: Coastal Engineering.

Professor Burcharth is author and contributor to a number of books and manuals including the Coastal Engineering Manual, the Rock Manual and the ISO standard for Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures. He has authored and co-authored numerous project reports and more than 300 scientific papers in conference proceedings and journals.

He is Honorary Doctor of University of Ghent in Belgium, Advisory Professor at the East China Technical University in Nanjing, was knighted by the Danish Queen and received the 2009 International Coastal Engineering Award by the American Society of Civil Engineering for “his outstanding contribution to the design of coastal and port structures, and leadership and service to the profession”.


Prof. Nobuhisa Kobayashi
Department of Civil Engineering, CACR
University of Delaware (USA)

1974: Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan

1976: Master’s degree in Civil Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan

1979: Ph.D. in Hydrodynamics and Coastal Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

1979-1981: Senior Consulting Engineer, Brian Watt Associates, Inc., Houston, USA

1981-1986: Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Delaware, USA

1986-1991: Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Delaware

1991-present: Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Delaware

1989-2001: Associate Director, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware

2001-2017: Director, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware

2003: Moffatt-Nichol Harbor and Coastal Engineering Award, American Society of Civil Engineers

2010: International Coastal Engineering Award, American Society of Civil Engineers

2012: Honorary Certificate for Dedication to Teaching and High Contributions to Research and Technical Applications in the Field of Coastal and Ports Engineering awarded in the 6-th International Short Course and Conference on Applied Coastal Research.


Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Roberto Tomasicchio
University of Salento – EUMER
Lecce, Italy

Roberto Tomasicchio got a Ph.D. degree in Hydraulics in 1993 at University of Bologna (I). Was Visiting Scholar (1997) at the Centre for Applied Coastal Research at the University of Delaware (USA). Since 2002, is full professor of Coastal Engineering at University of Salento and eCampus University. Italy. Research interests are directed towards Coastal and Offshore Engineering topics as wave breaking and longshore transport, coastal structures such as reshaping or berm breakwaters, armour stone degradation, long term wave prediction, rehabilitation of eroded/polluted beaches, design and structural risk of coastal structures, wave induced forces at pipelines, and forces at floating structures. Since 1990, he has attended almost all ICCE conferences and served as session chair. He was co-secretary for the Coastal Structures 2007 held in Venice. Chairman for SCACR conferences (www.scacr.eu). Scientific Director of EUMER (eumer.eu). Acts as member of several PIANC working groups. He was awarded by as Coastal Engineering outstanding reviewer for 2015. He is Associate Editor for Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures, Journal of Marine.


Prof. Dr. Waleed Hamza
Biology Dept., College of Science
United Arab Emirates University

Prof. Waleed Hamza is actually a professor of Oceanography and Aquatic Ecology at the Biology Department, College of Science; United Arab Emirates University. He has obtained his Ph.D. from Italy in Aquatic Ecology, 1994. He has and is acting as principal investigator of different research projects in the field of Oceanography and Aquatic Ecology in Africa, Europe, and Asia. He obtained research grants exceeds 2,000,000 U$. He organized different International conferences between Egypt, Italy, Finland, Canada and UAE. He participated in more than 80 International, regional, and local conferences. He is teaching many undergraduate and graduate courses, such as Oceanography, Marine Biology, Coastal Zone Management, Aquatic Ecology, Principals of Environmental Science and supervising many Graduation Research Projects. He supervised and awarded different Ph.D. and M.Sc. degrees in Egypt, Switzerland, Italy and UAE in the field of Oceanography and Aquatic Ecology. Prof. Hamza is acting as member in the editorial board of different scientific Journals such as Aquatic Ecology (Springer Publisher), Hydrobiologia (Elsevier Publisher) and Aquatic Ecosystem health and management (Taylor and Francis Publisher). He was the Egyptian PI and the European Community project partner for (Mediterranean Forecasting system project). He established the Numerical Modeling laboratory for Marine Ecosystems at Alexandria University, Egypt. He has active research collaboration with Max-Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen-Germany; and with the Finnish Environmental Institute in Helsinki-Finland as well as with the Italian Institute for the ecosystem studies – CNR-Italy. In 2015, he has awarded a Qatar foundation Grant together with colleagues from European Research Institutes and Qatar Ministry of Environment. He is a poly lingual scientist. Prof. Waleed Hamza has published more than 87 international scientific peer reviewed publications and 7 book chapters with H-index of 24.3. He is a member in more than 10 International scientific societies and associations in the field of Oceanography and Aquatic Ecology. He served as the Chairman of the Biology Dept. College of Science for the period 2002 until 2011.


Prof. Dr. Marcel van Gent
Deltares, Department Coastal Structures & Waves
The Netherlands

Marcel van Gent obtained his PhD degree in 1995 at the Delft University of Technology on wave interaction with permeable coastal structures. Since 1995 he joined Deltares and became head of the Department Coastal Structures & Waves at Deltares, Delft. He combines his position at Deltares with a full professorship at the TU Delft on Coastal Structures. Marcel van Gent contributed to about 150 scientific publications on breakwaters, dikes, laboratory testing, numerical modelling and artificial intelligence techniques. Marcel van Gent is associate editor of the well-known scientific journal ‘Coastal Engineering’.

Jose AlsinaFaculty of Civil Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

  • wave induced sediment transport;
  • waves at the swash zone;
  • beach and dune morpho dynamics;
  • large scale physical model experiments.

Corrado AltomareFaculty of Civil Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

  • wave-structure interaction;
  • smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics;
  • coastal and offshore structures;
  • wave overtopping;
  • physical model tests.

Alessandro AntoniniDepartment of Hydraulic Engineering, TU Delft, Netherlands

  • coastal and offshore structures;
  • wave structure interaction;
  • impulsive wave loading;
  • wave mechanics;
  • wave energy;
  • extreme events.

Renata Archetti Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Bologna, Italy

  • coastal hydrodynamics and morphodynamics;
  • pollution in coastal areas;
  • innovative sea-monitoring technology;
  • marine structure design;
  • extreme event risk analysis;
  • renewable energy resource assessment;
  • generation and propagation of tsunamis modelling.

Jia-Lin ChenDepartment of Hydraulics and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

  • wave-current interaction;
  • estuarine circulations;
  • nearshore processes ;
  • sediment transport

Giovanni CuomoHR Wallingford, Oxford, UK

  • hydrodynamic loads;
  • wave seiching;
  • tsunami;
  • breakwaters;
  • physical model experiment.

Samuele De BartoloEngineering Department, University of Salento, Italy

  • power law and stochastic processes;
  • scaling and multiscaling analysis in hydraulic;
  • shallow waters modelling in flood basin models;
  • physical experiments;
  • hydraulics of porous media.

Giulia De Masi, Technology Innovation Institute and College of Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (UAE) 

  • Operational Forecasting;
  • Machine learning and AI;
  • Marine Autonomous Systems and Robotics;
  • Wave modeling;
  • Extreme events;
  • Cyclone modeling;
  • Underwater Communications and sensing

Ali Farhadzadeh Department of Civil Engineering and School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, USA

  • wave-structure interaction;
  • sediment transport;
  • geomechanics;
  • lake hydrodynamics;
  • marine renewable energy;
  • probabilistic analysis;
  • coastal processes;
  • experimental modelling;
  • process-based modelling;
  • high fidelity modelling.

Jens FiglusUSA dune, Department of Ocean Engineering, Texas A&M University, Galveston, Texas;

  • beach morphodynamics;
  • sediment transport;
  • waves;
  • storm impacts;
  • nature-based solutions.

Antonio FranconeDepartment of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Italy

  • coastal structures;
  • coastal sediment transport and morphodynamics;
  • numerical and physical modelling;
  • resilience of coastal systems.

Alec Torres-FreyermuthInstituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico

  • nearshore wave transformation;
  • surf and swash zone hydrodynamics;
  • wave-structure interaction;
  • beach morphodynamics;
  • beach-dune resilience.

Mauricio Felga Gobbi PPGEA Centro Politecnico – UFPR, Brasil

  • wave mechanics;
  • wave propagation modelling;
  • nearshore hydrodynamics.

Raùl Guanche GarciaEnvironmental Hydraulics Institute, IHCantabria, Santander, Spain

  • fluid-structure interaction;
  • offshore structures (i.e. offshore wind structures…).
  • Waves hydrodynamics

Aaron C. HendersonBiology Department, College of Science Station Road, UAE University Oughterard, United Arab Emirates

  • biology and ecology of the elasmobranch fishes,
  • reproductive strategies
  • understanding of vertebrate evolution,
  • conservation and fishery management.

Gregorio IglesiasIreland wave energy, University College Cork, Cork;

  • offshore wind energy;
  • tidal & hydrokinetic energy;
  • coastal hydraulics;
  • coastal erosion;
  • coastal structures.


Suzana IlicLancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, UK

  • coastal hydrodynamics and morphodynamics;
  • nearshore wave transformation;
  • extreme waves;
  • hydrodynamics and structures interaction;
  • beach and structures interaction;
  • dynamic of gravel beaches;
  • application of new technologies for coastal monitoring;
  • coastal erosion;
  • numerical modelling of nearshore hydrodynamics;
  • coastal adaptation and resilience.

Jose JimenezFaculty of Civil Engineering at Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

  • sediment transport
  • coastal morphodynamics
  • vulnerability & Risks
  • climate change
  • coastal management

Bahareh KamranzadUniversity of Strathclyde (UK)

    • climate change;
    • renewable energies;
    • wave modelling;
    • wind and wave climate;
    • extreme events.

      John Paul LathamFaculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Science & Engineering, Imperial College London, UK

      • rubble mound structures,
      • rock material performance,
      • concrete armour units,
      • numerical modelling of armour layers

      Gianfausto Salvadori Department of Mathematics ans Physics, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

      • multivariate copula analysis;
      • risk assessment;
      • climate and sea-level change;
      • hydrologic models.

      Munjed A. MaraqaDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, UAE

      • marine water and sediment quality;
      • modeling environmental systems;
      • mass transfer.

      Jeffrey MelbyNoble Consultants-G.E.C., Inc. – 8282 Goodwood Boulevard, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)

      • coastal Hazards;
      • storm surge prediction;
      • extreme water level;
      • rubble mound breakwaters

      Andres Payo GarciaBritish Geological Survey, Nicker Hill, Keyworth, Nottingham (UK)

      • coastal erosion;
      • geology;
      • nearshore morpho-dynamic;
      • system modelling;
      • multi-hazards;
      • coastal resilience.

      Francisco SanchoNational Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC), Lisbon, Portugal

      • coastal morphodynamics;
      • coastline modelling;
      • coastal erosion vulnerability;
      • laboratory experiments;
      • coastal remote sensing.

      Alessandra SaponieriEngineering Department, University of Salento, Italy

      • coastal sediment transport and morphodynamics;
      • soft coastal protection systems;
      • coastal risk;
      • coastal monitoring;
      • wave energy.

      Holger SchuttrumpfInstitute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

      • coastal Structures;
      • coastal Risks;
      • coastal Processes;
      • hydraulic Structures;
      • sediment transport and morphodynamics.

      Alessandro StocchinoDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom, Hong Kong

      • numerical modelling of Coastal circulation;
      • marine pollution, ocean mixing and Lagrangian Coherent Structures;
      • coastal sediment transport and morphodynamics.

      Z. Tugce Yuksel Consultant, Istanbul, Turkey

      • Port Structures (i.e. berthing structures);
      • Performance Based Design;
      • Seismic Design of Port and Coastal Structures;
      • Soil-Structure Interaction;
      • Breakwaters;
      • Coastal Protection;
      • Physical Experiments.

      Kyu-Han KimDepartment of Civil Engineering, Catholic Kwandong University, South of Korea

      • beach erosion and sedimentation;
      • wave energy;
      • physical and numerical model of nearshore problems;
      • coastal structure design;
      • coastal hazards and countermeasures
        Publishing Ethics

        The present Publishing Ethics list the best ethical practices and common types of misconduct for Editors, Authors and Reviewers as found in Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines [1]


        1.1 Originality and Acknowledgement of Sources

        Authors should present entirely original and unpublished manuscripts, without fabrication or falsification. Plagiarism in all its forms (from ‘passing off’ another’s paper as the author’s own paper) constitutes unethical behaviour and is unacceptable. Authors attest that manuscripts have not been copied or plagiarized and that other author’s work and/or words have been appropriately cited or quoted and permission has been obtained where necessary. Authors should also cite publications that have influenced the reported work and that give the work appropriate context within the larger scholarly record.

        Generally, authors should not be submit a publication to more than one journal concurrently. Authors should not submit for consideration in another journal a paper that has been published previously, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint. Authors should not have described essentially the same research in already published works.

        1.2 Confidentiality

        Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.

        1.3 Authorship of the Paper

        Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. Others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the paper should be recognised in the acknowledgements section or listed as contributors.

        Authors are all responsible for the work. The corresponding author and all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication. Each individual author is accountable for ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

        Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Only in exceptional circumstances the Editor consider (at their discretion) the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been submitted.

        1.4 Declaration of Competing Interests

        Conflict of interest is defined as “a divergence between an individual’s private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities, such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual’s behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests” [2].

        Authors should have disclosed in their manuscript any financial and personal conflict of interest that could bias the work. All sources of financial support for the conduct of the research and/or the preparation of the article should be disclosed.

        1.5 Notification of Fundamental Errors

        Authors should alert the journal editor or publisher promptly if they discover an error or inaccuracy in their own accepted or published work and cooperate with editors in issuing corrections or retractions when required.

        1.6 Reporting Standards

        Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work.

        It is not acceptable to enhance, obscure, move, remove, or introduce a specific feature within an image. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original.

        Authors should comply with any specific policy for graphical images applied by the relevant journal, e.g. providing the original images as supplementary material with the article, or depositing these in a suitable repository


        2.1 Publication Decisions

        The editor is solely and independently responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding issues such as libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers (or society officers) in making these decisions. Editors should make unbiased decisions independent from commercial considerations. They must evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).

        2.2 Peer review

        This journal employs a double-blind review process. The editor shall ensure that the peer review process is fair, unbiased, and timely. The editors must take in account the evaluation made by the reviewers. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor. Research articles must typically be reviewed by at least two external and independent reviewers, who have suitable expertise in the relevant field.

        2.3 Confidentiality

        The Editor must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript of all material submitted to the journal and all communications with reviewers to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

        Unless reviewers have agreed to disclose their names, the editor must protect reviewers’ identities.

        2.4 Declaration of Competing Interests

        The chief editor, members of the editorial board and scientific committee, and reviewers shall withdraw in any case of conflict of interest concerning an author or authors, or the content of a manuscript to be evaluated.

        Any potential editorial conflicts of interest should be declared to the publisher in writing prior to the appointment of the editor, and then updated if and when new conflicts arise.

        2.5 Vigilance over the Published Record

        The editor is independently responsible for selecting, processing, and deciding which of the articles submitted to the Journal meet the editorial goals. The editor is responsible for deciding which submitted articles should be published. The editor should safeguard the integrity of the published record by reviewing and assessing reported or suspected misconduct (research, publication, reviewer and editorial), in conjunction with the publisher (or society).

        Editors may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board and constrained by the legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism.


        3.1 Contribution to Editorial Decisions

        The journal requires potential reviewers to have scientific expertise or significant work experience in a relevant field. Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper

        Reviewers are asked generally to treat authors and their work as they would like to be treated themselves and to observe good reviewing etiquette. Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and decline to participate in the review process. All selected reviewers must likewise withdraw if they know they are unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript, or that its prompt review will be, or if they understand themselves to be in a conflict of interest.

        3.2 Confidentiality

        Reviewed articles are treated confidentially by reviewers and members of the editorial board and international scientific committee. Reviewers must not share, show or discuss with others the articles, except if authorized by the editor. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer’s own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

        3.3 Alertness to Ethical Issues

        A reviewer should be alert to potential ethical issues in the paper and should bring these to the attention of the editor, including any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which the reviewer has personal knowledge.

        3.4 Standards of Objectivity & Competing Interests

        Reviews must be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author(s) are not acceptable. Referees must express their views clearly with supporting arguments. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers


        [1] http://publicationethics.org

        [2] http://www.wame.org/about/conflict-of-interest-in-peer-reviewed-medical

        Guide of Authors

        1 Submission checklist

        The online submission system guides the corresponding author stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. Editable files (Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor’s decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail to the corresponding author.

        Before submitting you article to the Journal for review, ensure that the following items are present:

        • one author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details (E- mail address and full postal address)
        • all necessary files have been uploaded:
          • Cover Letter
          • Manuscript (including Abstract, keywords and references)
          • All figures
          • Consider the further basic requirements, as follows:
          • Manuscript has been ‘spell checked’ and ‘grammar checked’
          • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice-versa
          • Ensure all figure citations in the text match the files provided
          • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources

        Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing for journal publication.

        After acceptance, manuscripts are published Free of Charge, i.e. no payment is due for publication.

        2. Cover letter

        The cover letter should briefly explain the research and why your work is of interest for the Journal. Do not copy your abstract into your cover letter, instead explain in your own words the significance of the work, the problem that is being addressed, and why the manuscript belongs in the journal. The cover letter must include:

        • manuscript’s title
        • brief description of the research you are reporting in your paper, why it is important, and why you think the readers of the journal would be interested in it
        • declaration of competing interest: confirmation that you have no competing interests to disclose. A competing interest statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare. All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work (see Publishing Ethics on the Journal web-site)
        • submission declaration and verification: submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder (see Publishing Ethics on the Journal web-site)
        • contact information for the Corresponding Author.

        Note: Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree

        with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

        3. Peer review

        This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper within one week from the submission. The reviewers are asked to submit the Review Report within 20 days after accepting the assignment. Authors are asked to respond and/or submit a revised version of the manuscript within 7, 14 or 21 days, depending on the level of revisions requested. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles.

        4. After Acceptance

        To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within 10 days. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.
        Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a ‘Journal Publishing Agreement’. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a ‘Journal Publishing Agreement’ form of the agreement.

        1. Manuscript formats submit to review

        The Manuscript to be submitted for review has to be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in two-column format with numbered lines. Templates are available on the Journal web-site in the Guide for Authors section. To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the ‘spell-check’ and ‘grammar-check’ functions of your processor.

        LaTeX: you are recommended to use the article class available on the Journal web site to prepare your manuscript and BibTex to generate your bibliography. You can simply upload the PDF yourself in addition to the source files (as .zip file). The maximum upload size is 500 Mb.

        2. Language

        Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).

        3. Essential title page information

        • Title. Concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
        • Author names and affiliations. The given name(s) and family name(s) of each author have to be clearly indicated together with the authors’ affiliation addresses below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name of each author.
        • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication.

        4. Abstract

        A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length 300 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions.

        5. Keywords

        Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”). Also, avoid using words that are already in the title. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

        6. Article structure

        Use Times New Roman 12 point size. Use roman type except for the headings, parameters in mathematics. Never use bold, except to denote vectors in mathematics. Never underline any text. Use the small font for tables, figure captions and the references. Never use letterspacing and never use more than one space after each other.

        Follow this order when typing manuscripts: Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Main text (including figures and tables), Acknowledgements, References, Appendix. Please make sure that you use as much as possible normal fonts in your documents.
        Avoid hyphenation at the end of a line. Symbols denoting vectors and matrices should be indicated in bold type. Scalar variable names should normally be expressed using italics. Weights and measures should be expressed in SI units. All non-standard abbreviations or symbols must be defined when first mentioned, or a glossary provided.

        Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, …), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to “the text.” Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

        7. Figures and Tables

        Figures: figures should be embedded in the text. Further, high-resolution graphics files (minimum resolution of 300 dpi) must be provided separately during the submission of the Manuscript as .zip files (maximum upload size is 500 Mb). Please note that individual figure file size is maximum 20 MB. Figures, photographs, etc. can be in black/white or full color. In the text, refer to each Figure with Fig. 1 or (Fig. 1). Never place any text next to a figure. Leave this space blank.

        Tables: please insert tables as editable text and not as images. Locate tables close to the first reference to them in the text and headings should be placed above tables. Vertical lines should not be included in tables. In the text, refer to each Table with Tab. 1 or (Tab. 1).

        Both Figures and Tables should have a caption and should be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place the caption underneath the figure and above the table.

        8. Equations

        Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Equations are not indented. Number equations consecutively and place the number with the tab key at the end of the line, between parentheses. In the text refer to equations by these numbers (e.g., Eq. 1). Do not use the equation editor between text on same line.

        9. Listing and numbering

        When listing facts use either the style tag List signs or the style tag List numbers (Word) or item environment in LaTeX.

        10. Acknowledgements

        Collate acknowledgements, including information on grants received, in a separate section at the end of the article and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. Authors must identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

        In the Acknowledgements Section please include the following sentence:
        “This work was supported by xxx [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; or, if no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
        “This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors”.

        11. References

        Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References in the text: citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically (if several works by the same author are cited).

        Place the authors’ last names (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the date of publication in parentheses as follows:

        • single Author: the Author’s family name and the year of publication;
        • two Authors: both Authors’ family names and the year of publication;
        • three or more Authors: first Authors’ family name followed by “et al.” and the year of publication.

        At the end of the paper all references underneath the heading REFERENCES. References must be listed in alphabetic order and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same Author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, c, etc., placed after the year of publication. Do not begin them on a new page unless this is absolutely necessary.

        Download Guide for Authors

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